There are rising concerns over the unsustainable use of deep groundwater in the city of Jakarta, Indonesia. The overall population of Jakarta increased significantly in the 20th century, from about 100,000 in 1900 to more than 31 million in 2016 (Wendell Cox Consultancy 2016). Jakarta relies heavily on groundwater as a water source both for household and industrial consumption. We shall discuss this in detail further in this paper.
There is no definitive position on when groundwater in Jakarta will run out. Some experts who project that groundwater in Jakarta could run out in the next couple of decades, others are unable to predict an exact time frame. What is clear, however, is that there is an over-consumption of groundwater which is unsustainable based on rapid urbanisation in Jakarta and diminishing opportunities for recharge and replenishment.
This is not an issue that is unique to Jakarta. Many other cities faced similar problems. Tokyo, Osaka, Taipei, Shanghai, Bangkok, Houston, New Mexico, Venice and San Jose are a few examples. The common solution in these cities is that they either stopped or reduced drastically their reliance on the use of groundwater (Deltares 2016). We will examine each of the above-mentioned problems arising from the unsustainable use of groundwater in Jakarta and also examine the position that various governmental agencies have taken to tackle and address the issue.
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